METALS AND NON-METALS
In our daily life we need several things. Think of the gate through which you enter each day. What is it made up of? Have you ever wondered what the school bus is made up of?
How people make the water bottle you carry each day? And the same question for the pen, computer and mobile. The answers will be different to all of them, but they are actually similar.
The materials we see around us are either natural or man- made. The answer to all of the above questions is that they all are materials. The materials can be classified into metals and non-metals. They both have different properties and different uses. Let’s have a look at them.
Properties of metals
- The metals are lustrous i.e. shiny surface.
- They are good conductors of heat and electricity. They easily allow heat and electricity to pass through them. If you heat water on the stove, the pot becomes hot.
- They are mostly hard solids.
- They have high density. The density is defined as mass per unit volume.
- They are malleable i.e. they can be drawn into sheets.
- They are ductile i.e. they can be drawn in to wires.
- They have high melting point. They cannot melt easily.
Examples and uses of metals
Some of the examples of the metals are as follows:
- Iron and steel are used for the construction of the building, bridges, ships, or automobiles.
- Metals like copper, aluminum, gold or silver are used in the making of coins.
- Gold and silver are used for making ornaments.
- The aluminum and copper are used to make electricity wires.
- Mercury is used to make the thermometer.
- The utensils at the kitchen are mostly made up of steel.
Alloys of Metals
The metals have an amazing property of mixing well with each other. The mixture of one or more metals or non-metals with a metal is called alloy. The alloys such made have better property than the single metal or non-metal. The alloys are generally stronger than their actual metal. They are used today at large scale. Some of the examples of the alloys are:
- Steel: It is a combination of metal iron and non-metal carbon. The steel is excessively used in making utensils.
- Bronze: It is a mixture of copper and tin. It is used to make tools.
- Duralumin: It is a mixture of aluminum and copper. It is extremely hard and is used for making of vehicles in defense industry.
Properties of non-metals
- They are not shiny as metals are.
- They are neither good conductor of heat nor electricity.
- They are not hard, they tend to bend.
- They are also brittle. They can break easily if enough force is applied while bending.
- They have low density as compared to metals.
- They have low melting and boiling points as compared to metals.
Examples and uses of non- metals
- Non-metals like glass are used in making window panes, doors, utensils, or decorative items.
- The oxygen is needed for the respiration of the animals. The combustion also takes place in presence of oxygen.
- The graphite is used for making leads of the pencils.
- The nitrogen is used by the plants which is helpful to absorb proteins. Nitrogen also acts as good manure.